Average Verbal Reasoning Standardized Scores by Height and Family SizeóData of Group II G
Number of Children in Family
Height (cm.) 1 2 3 Average Verbal Reasoning Scorea 4 or More
Less than 130.0 96.2 (19) 101.2 (35) 97.5 (16) 94.5 (33)
30.0-134.9 102.1 (58) 100.4 (88) 101.4 (52) 94.1 (55)
135.0-139.9 108.4 (70) 107.0 (119) 102.4 (80) 100.7 (44)
140.0-144.9 108.5 (54) 106.0 (104) 105.9 (37) 99.9 (44)
145 and over 108.5 (43) 107.5 (50) 106.5 (28) 102.8 (16)
aFigures in parentheses are numbers of children in each class. Source: Scott (18).
Whereas the degree of maternal deprivation may depend to some extent on sib number, it is more likely to depend on sibling spacing and on the maternal morbidity and mortality rates. The effects of extreme maternal deprivation are drastic and impressive in the sense that they affect linguistic skills, I.Q. scores, and success in later life (19-21); the existence or absence of apathy; such physical aspects as height and weight (16, pp. 136-137); as well as the normal immunity from various diseases which is believed to be derived from breast feeding in the early nurture period (19, p. 23).
In 1943 and in subsequent years, Goldfarb (cited in 22) had an opportunity to study communities of children in institutions. Of thirty children aged 34 to 35 months, fifteen who had been brought up in institutions had I.Q.'s lower by 28 points than those of the remaining fifteen who had been in foster homes from the age of 4 months.
Spitz (22) gives the name "anaclitic depression" to the state of dazed stupor found in children deprived of maternal care. The child is apathetic, silent, and sad; he makes no attempt at contact; in many cases he suffers from insomnia; he loses weight and becomes prone to recurrent infections; there is a rapid drop in the developmental quotient. Of the ninety-five children studied by Spitz, this type of depression was observed in almost 50 percent. small family.